Journal of Biological Methods <p>The <em>Journal of Biological Methods (JBM) </em>(ISSN 2326-9901) is a multidisciplinary and open-access journal committed to publishing peer-reviewed papers on cutting-edge and innovative biological techniques, methods and protocols.</p> <p><em>JBM</em> has been included by the following indexing and archiving services: Google Scholar, CrossRef, OCLC, Portico and SHERPA/RoMEO, BIOSIS Previews and Biological Abstracts.</p> <p><em>JBM</em> has been indexed by PubMed Central (PMC) and all papers are also searchable in PubMed.</p> POL Scientific, LLC en-US Journal of Biological Methods 2326-9901 <p>Authors who publish with JBM agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant JBM right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> Diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: Towards accuracy and accessibility <p>Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a serious dementia afflicting aging population and is characterized by cognitive decline, amyloid-β plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles. AD substantially impairs the life quality of the victims and poses a heavy burden on the society at large. The number of people with dementia due to AD, prodromal AD, and preclinical AD is estimated to stand at roughly 3.2, 69, and 315 million worldwide, respectively. Current clinical diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms, and clinical research demonstrated that positron emission tomography (PET) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers had excellent diagnostic performance. However, the application of CSF biomarker tests and PET are restricted by the invasiveness and high cost. The presence of clinical symptoms means that AD pathology has been progressing for many years, and only a few drugs have been approved for the traetemnt of AD. Therefore, early diagnosis is extremely important for controlling the outcomes caused by AD. In this review, we provided an overview of developing clinical diagnostic criteria, diagnostic strategies under clinical research, developing blood based-biomarker assays, and promising nanotechnologically-based assays.</p> Yan Mu Ke-Xin Chang Yu-Feng Chen Ke Yan Chun-Xiang Wang Qian Hua Copyright (c) 2024 Yan Mu, Ke-Xin Chang, Yu-Feng Chen, Ke Yan, Chun-Xiang Wang, Qian Hua 2024-03-18 2024-03-18 11 1 e99010010 e99010010 10.14440/jbm.2024.412 Development of an In Situ Hybridization Method for Detection of Akabane Virus <p>Akabane virus (AKAV) is an arbovirus belonging to the family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus. AKAV consists of three-segment (L, M, and S RNA segments), negative single-stranded RNA. The aim of this study was to investigate an in situ hybridization method (ISH) in a Vero E6 cell line infected with Akabane virus. The 320 base pair amplicon was obtained by RT-PCR with a primer pair and labeled with digoxigenin. Akabane virus RNAs were seen as a granular pattern in the cytoplasm of infected cells. As a result, the expression of the particular Akabane virus gene area was successfully disclosed in the current investigation using the ISH method with a digoxigenin-labeled probe.</p> Nihat Toplu Tuba Çiğdem Oğuzoğlu Ayşe Nur Akkoç Copyright (c) 2024 Nihat Toplu, Tuba Çiğdem Oğuzoğlu, Ayşe Nur Akkoç 2024-02-23 2024-02-23 11 1 e99010011 e99010011 10.14440/jbm.2024.413 Validation of 12 Rapid Antigen Tests for the Detection of SARS-CoV-2 <p>The rapid identification SARS-CoV-2 virus has become the basis for the control of the COVID-19 outbreak. The rapid antigen tests for SARS-CoV-2 are quick, widely available, and inexpensive. Rapid antigen tests have gradually replaced the time-consuming and costly RT-PCR. Currently, although several RAT kits have been extensively used for the diagnosis of COVID-19, validity data are limited due to the inconsistent sensitivity and poor reproducibility. Meanwhile, WHO does not recommend specific commercial RAT kits. Therefore, it is crucial to establish a method to evaluate the effectiveness of different rapid antigen tests kits. This study aimed to develop an evaluation system for rapid antigen tests to provide an efficient and accurate technique for screening SARS-CoV-2 antigen detection kits. Given large number of rapid antigen tests kits available, this study only focused on those that are representative and commonely used in China. By minimzing biases through randomization, concealment, and blinding, we eventually found that the Test 1 had the lowest sensitivity and the Test VI had the highest sensitivity. This study provided an evaluation platform that can potentially serve as a reference for COVID-19 diagnostic strategies.</p> Minghang Yu Yang Xiong Pu Liang Danying Chen Yuting Zhang Huan Liu Yuanyuan Zhang Xuesen Zhao Ronghua Jin Xi Wang Copyright (c) 2024 Minghang Yu, Yang Xiong, Pu Liang, Danying Chen, Yuting Zhang, Huan Liu, Yuanyuan Zhang, Xuesen Zhao, Ronghua Jin, Xi Wang 2024-01-12 2024-01-12 11 1 e99010009 e99010009 10.14440/jbm.2024.409